The International Day Against Fascism and Antisemitism is marked on November 9 to commemorate the victims of Nazism and nationalist, racist and antisemitic terror.

On November 9, 1938, a series of Jewish pogroms, called Kristallnacht, was organized and carried out by the Nazis. Kristallnacht pogroms became the Third Reich’s first act of mass violence against Jews. On that day, the Nazis killed over 90 people, and according to other sources, up to 2,000 people. Between 3,500 and 30,000 Jews were seized and sent to concentration camps. From 300 to 1,500 synagogues were set on fire, while thousands of Jewish shops had their windows smashed, which gave rise to the name “Kristallnacht” or “Crystal Night.”